Two professors Justin Kruger and David Dunningfrom Department of Psychology at Cornell University in USA published a paper titled (I also give the Abstract below):
Unskilled and Unaware of It: How Difficulties in Recognizing One’s Own Incompetence Lead to Inflated Self-Assessments
People tend to hold overly favorable views of their abilities in many social and intellectual domains.
The authors suggest that this overestimation occurs, in part, because people who are unskilled in these domains suffer a dual burden: Not only do these people reach erroneous conclusions and make unfortunate choices, but their incompetence robs them of the metacognitive ability to realize it.
Across 4 studies, the authors found that participants scoring in the bottom quartile on tests of humor, grammar, and logic grossly overestimated their test performance and ability. Although their test scores put them in the 12th percentile, they estimated themselves to be in the 62nd.
Several analyses linked this miscalibration to deficits in metacognitive skill, or the capacity to distinguish accuracy from error. Paradoxically, improving the skills of participants, and thus increasing their metacognitive competence, helped them recognize the limitations of their abilities.
They tested people for their “humour”, “grammar” and “logic”, and found the results that those who were good knew they were good (a bit less than they really were), but those who were not good at those were confident that they were good.
Lesson for You
Are you confident of success? Certain? Almost sure? Quite sure? Unsure?
You may or may not be right.
Getting some other recognized expert (your teachers / trainers) evaluate you can help you know where you stand and accordingly plan your success path.
By the way, do you know that you can use the mind machine to study and learn in relaxed way so you revise and remember more in less time and be more relaxed and confident in exams, which helps avoid silly mistakes and get the highest marks you deserve.
Be skilled and aware of it,